Wright Brothers 282nd Aero Composite Squadron - Civil Air
          Patrol

DRILL AND CEREMONIES

Military organizations have used drill and ceremonies for centuries. Drill was used as a way to build teamwork and to move masses of people from one place to another in an orderly fashion. Although specific movements in drill and ceremonies may vary from one country to another and one branch of the military to another, their basic purpose is the same.

This text is not intended to teach all the drill commands. Rather it ‘s intended to give you a head start with some basic movements and the commands associated with those movements. All members must know the most basic of movements. Because cadets will be participating in large drill formation, more advanced commands will be taught as part of their regular curricular instruction. In all cases, formal instruction will be given by a qualified drill instructor.

CAP is the auxiliary of the United States Air Force. Because of our close ties to the Air Force, it is natural for drill and ceremonies to be included in our subculture. While drill and ceremonies are not emphasized in the Officer Program like they are in the Cadet Program, officers are expected to perform some basic drill and to be familiar with basic customs and courtesies. These are commands such as “Attention,” “Parade Rest,” “Present Arms,” etc. We do this not only to keep the tradition of drill alive, but to instill the concept of teamwork and build esprit de corps; which loosely translated means “team spirit.”

You will be exposed to drill and ceremonies in many venues such as the opening formation at your unit meetings, your Level I orientation, leadership schools sponsored by your unit or other units, and special schools such as CAP’s Region Staff Colleges.

COMMANDS

The preparatory command and command of execution go hand in hand. Most commands begin with a preparatory command which informs you as to what the movement will be. In this text, the preparatory command will be shown with the first letter capitalized and in bold type (Forward). The preparatory command is clearly pronounced. An example may be the word Forward in the command Forward, MARCH.

The second part of the command is the command of execution. The command of execution explains when the movement will be carried out. In this text, the command of execution will be in all capitals and in bold type (MARCH). When the command of execution is given, the airman will execute the movement immediately with snap. Think of it this way, when you are at the start of a foot race and you hear “GO!”, you move immediately without hesitation. This is snap.

In some cases, the preparatory command and command of execution are combined. This means that the command given both tells you what the movement will be and when to execute it. An example of a combined command is AT EASE or REST.

ATTENTION

The command is (Unit), ATTENTION. To come to attention, bring the heels together. Place the heels as near each other as the conformation of the body permits, and ensure the feet are turned out equally, forming a 45-degree angle. Keep the legs straight without stiffening or locking the knees. The body is erect with hips level, chest lifted, back arched, and shoulders square and even. Arms hang straight down alongside the body without stiffness, and the wrists are straight with the forearms. Place thumbs, which are resting along the first joint of the forefinger, along the seams of the trousers or sides of the skirt. Hands are cupped (but not clenched as a fist) with palms facing the leg. The head is kept erect and held straight to the front with the chin drawn in slightly so the axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes are to the front, with the line of sight parallel to the ground. The weight of the body rests equally on the heels and balls of both feet, and silence and immobility are required.

Attention

POSITIONS OF REST

There are three resting positions: Parade Rest, At Ease, and Rest.

Parade Rest: The command is Parade, REST. On the command REST, the airman will raise the left foot from the hip just enough to clear the ground and move it smartly to the left so the heels are 12 inches apart, as measured from the inside of the heels. Keep the legs straight, but not stiff, and the heels on line. As the left foot moves, bring the arms, fully extended, to the back of the body, uncapping the hands in the process; and extend and join the fingers, pointing them toward the ground. The palms will face outwards. Place the right hand in the palm of the left, right thumb over the left to form an “X”. Keep head and eyes straight ahead, and remain silent and immobile.

At Ease: The command is AT EASE. On the command AT EASE, airmen may relax in a standing position, but they must keep the right foot in place. Their position in the formation will not change, and silence will be maintained.

Rest: The command is REST. On the command REST, the same requirements for at ease apply, but moderate speech is permitted.

Rest

 

FACING MOVEMENTS

There are three primary facing movements from the position of attention: Left Face, Right Face, and About Face. Facing movements are performed in two counts.

Right (Left) Face: The commands are Right (Left), FACE. On the command FACE, raise the right (left) toe and left (right) heel slightly and pivot 90 degrees to the right (left) on the ball of the left (right) foot and the heel of the right (left) foot, assisted by slight pressure on the ball of the left (right) foot. Keep legs straight, but not stiff. The upper portion of the body remains at attention. This completes count one of the movement. Next, bring the left (right) foot smartly forward, ensuring heels are together and on line. Feet should now be forming a 45-degree angle, which means the position of attention has been resumed. This completes count two of the movement.

Half Right (Left) Face: When instructions are given for 45-degree movements, the command Half Right (Left), FACE may be used. The procedures described in paragraph about right (left) face are used except each person executes the movement by facing 45 degrees to the right or left.

Facing

About Face: The command is About, FACE. On the command FACE, lift the right foot from the hip just enough to clear the ground. Without bending the knees, place the ball of the right foot approximately half a shoe length behind and slightly to the left of the heel. Distribute the weight of the body on the ball of the right foot and the heel of the left foot. Keep both legs straight, but not stiff. The position of the foot has not changed. This completes count one of the movement. Keeping the upper portion of the body at the position of attention, pivot 180 degrees to the right on the ball of the right foot and heel of the left foot, with a twisting motion from the hips. Suspend arm swing during the movement, and remain as though at attention. On completion of the pivot, heels should be together and on line and feet should form a 45-degree angle. The entire body is now at the position of attention. This completes count two of the movement.

About Face

SALUTING

Hand Salute: This is used for training purposes only. The command is Hand, SALUTE, and it’s performed in two counts. On the command SALUTE, the individual raises the right hand smartly in the most direct manner while at the same time extending and joining the fingers. Keep the palm flat and facing the body. Place the thumb along the forefingers, keeping the palm flat and forming a straight line between the fingertips and elbows. Tilt the palm slightly toward the face. Hold the upper arm horizontal, slightly forward of the body and parallel to the ground. Ensure the tip of the middle finger touches the right front corner of the headdress. If wearing a non-billed hat, ensure the middle finger touches the outside corner of the right eyebrow or the front corner of glasses. The rest of the body will remain at the position of attention. This is count one of the movement. To complete count two of the movement, bring the arm smoothly and smartly downward, retracing the path used to raise the arm. Cup the hand as it passes the waist, and return to the position of attention.

Present Arms and Order Arms: The commands are Present, ARMS and Order, ARMS. On the command Present, ARMS, the airman executes the first count of hand salute. Count two of hand salute is performed when given the command Order, ARMS.

Salute

What is a salute?

Salutes are exchanges upon recognition between officers and warrant officers and between officers or warrant officers and cadets or enlisted members of the Armed Forces. The salute is a courteous exchange of greetings as both a greeting and a symbol of mutual respect, with the junior member always saluting first. As such, it is never inappropriate to salute another individual. When returning or rendering an individual salute, the head and eyes are turned toward the Colors or person saluted. When in ranks, the position of attention is maintained unless otherwise directed.

When and when not to salute

As explained earlier, it is never inappropriate to salute another individual. So a good rule of thumb is, when in doubt, salute. You can never show too much respect, but you can offend others by not showing any respect.

There are rules to when and wear to and not to salute.

DO Salute…
• When in a military-style uniform
• The President of the United States, all Medal of Honor recipients, and commissioned officers and warrant officers of the Armed Forces who are senior in rank to you.
• Also, if the exchange of salutes is otherwise appropriate, it is customary for military members in civilian clothes to exchange salutes upon recognition

DO Salute when outdoors…
• When you are a junior approaching a senior officer. Saluting outdoors means salutes are exchanged when the persons involved are outside of a building. For example, if a person is on a porch, a covered sidewalk, a bus stop, a covered or open entryway, or a reviewing stand, the salute will be exchanged with a person on the sidewalk outside of the structure or with a person approaching or in the same structure. This applies both on and off military installations. The junior member should initiate the salute in time to allow the senior officer to return it. To prescribe an exact distance for all circumstances is not practical, but good judgment indicates when salutes should be exchanged. Typically the junior rank will render a salute a least 6 paces before, but not more then 30 paces before, when passing a senior officer.
• In military-style uniform, you render the military salute, hold it and remain silent during the National Anthem. In any other CAP uniform or civilian clothes, stand at attention and place your right hand over your heart (Men should remove headdress with right hand and hold it over their heart.)
• During the Pledge of Allegiance, when in military-style uniform outdoors, you stand at attention, face the flag, remain silent, and salute.

DO Salute when indoors…
You do not salute indoors, unless you are formally reporting to a superior.

DO Salute when in formation…
Only when commanded to do so. Do not salute if you are not told to do so.

DO Salute when in a group (not in formation)…
When a senior officer approaches, the first individual noticing the officer calls the group to attention by saying, “Room, ATTENTION” or “Area, ATTENTION”. All members face the officer and salute. If the officer addresses an individual or the group, all remain at attention (unless otherwise ordered) until the end of the conversation, at which time they salute the officer.

DO NOT salute…
• If you are a prisoner whose sentences include punitive discharges. All other prisoners, regardless of custody or grade, render the prescribed salute except when under armed guard. This is not a situation that a member of the Civil Air Patrol would come across, however the practice is worth mentioning.
• While on the run.
• If you are in a work detail. Individual workers do not salute. The person in charge salutes for the entire detail.
• If in public gatherings, such as sporting events, meetings, or when a salute would be inappropriate or impractical, salutes between individuals need not be rendered
• If you are a superior carrying articles in both hands. However, he or she should nod in return or verbally acknowledge the salute. If the junior member is carrying articles in both hands, verbal greetings should be exchanged. Also, use these procedures when greeting an officer of a friendly foreign nation.
• During the Pledge of Allegiance, when in military-style uniform indoors, stand at attention, face the flag, but do not salute or recite the pledge. Remember, uniformed men and women have already taken an oath. This oath holds a stronger weight then the pledge, thus uniform tradition indicates that reciting the pledge is not
necessary so it is not done.
• When on the run. Come to a walk first, and then salute. If you are running because of an emergency, the senior officer will not fell disrespected if you do not salute. In emergencies, common sense is
the rule.

REPORTING INDOORS

When reporting to an officer in his office, the junior removes his headgear, unless you are performing guard duty in which you will leave your headgear on. Make any adjustments to your uniform you may find necessary before you enter (such as lint, gig line, shoes, necktie, ribbons and pin-on insignias). Knock on the door once firmly and loud enough to be heard in an average-sized office. If there is no answer within a reasonable amount of time, knock once, again. When you are told to enter, or told to report, enter the room taking the most direct route to within two paces (a pace equals a step or 24 inches) in front of the officer’s desk, halt, salute, and report. You will report by saying “Sir/Ma’am, (your grade and last name) reporting as ordered.” Omit “as ordered,” when you are reporting on your own initiative. For example, “Sir, Flight Officer Sharpe reporting as ordered.” The salute is held until the report is completed and the salute has been returned by the officer. When the business is completed, the junior salutes, holds the salute until it has been returned, executes the appropriate facing movement (typically an about, face) and departs. Remember to be courteous and close the door behind you if you found it closed when you arrived. As mentioned before, you may be asked to report indoors during a ceremony. This is typical during award ceremonies. You report in the same manner as mentioned for reporting to an officer in their office, however you omit knocking. If accepting an award, be prepared to face the audience for recognition and photographs and do not forget to maintain proper military bearing at all times. This is your moment to shine and you don’t want to take away from the moment by acting silly or overly casual.

Reporting

REPORTING OUTDOORS

When reporting outdoors, the junior halts approximately one pace in front of the officer, salutes, and reports (as when indoors). When the junior is dismissed by the officer, the junior salutes, faces about and returns to their prior duties. If you are apart of a formation, the process is a bit more formal, but essentially the same. The individual in charge of your formation will have you in a formation called in line. They will command, “(Grade, Last Name), (pause) FRONT AND CENTER.” For example, “Cadet Sharpe…FRONT AND CENTER.” Upon hearing your name, you will assume the position of attention. On the command “FRONT AND CENTER”, you will take one step backwards (with coordinating arm swing), face to the left or right, proceed to the closest flank, and then proceeds to the front of the formation by the most direct route. You will then halt one pace in front of the individual in charge, salute and report. When business is complete, the individual in charge will dismiss you by commanding “RETURN TO RANKS”. You will then salute, face about and return by the same route to the same position in the ranks. In all cases, but especially when reporting display respect for those with higher rank and grade, don’t be overawed by it.

MARCHING

Cadence - The uniform step and rhythm in marching; that is, the number of steps marched per minute.
Double Time - The rate of marching at 180 steps (30 inches in length) per minute.
Mark Time - Marching in place at a rate of 100 to 120 steps per minute.
Pace - A step of 24 inches. This is the length of a full step in quick time.
Quick Time - The rate of marching at 100 to 120 steps (12 or 24 inches in length) per minute.
Slow Time - The rate of marching at 60 steps per minute (used in funeral ceremonies).
Step - The distance measured from heel to heel between the feet of an individual marching.

 

Halt: To halt from quick time, the command is Flight, HALT, given as either foot strikes the ground. On the command HALT, the airman will take one more 24-inch step. Next, the trailing foot will be brought smartly alongside the front foot. The heels will be together, on line, and form a 45-degree angle. Coordinated arm swing will cease as the weight of the body shifts to the leading  foot when halting.

Mark Time March: The command is Mark Time, MARCH. Form the position of a halt, on the command MARCH, the airman raises and lowers first the left foot and then the right. Mark time is executed in quick time only. The halt executed from mark time is similar to the halt from quick time. When marching, the command MARCH is given as either foot strikes the ground. The airman takes one more 24-inch step with the right (left) foot. He or she then brings the trailing foot to a position so both heels are on line. The cadence is continued by alternately raising and lowering each foot. The balls of the feet are raised 4 inches above the ground. Normal arm swing is maintained. To resume marching, the command Forward, MARCH is given as the heel of the left foot strikes the ground. The airman takes one more step in place and then steps off in a full 24-inch step with the left foot.

Forward March: To march forward in quick time from the position of a halt, the command is Forward, MARCH. On the command MARCH, the airman smartly steps off straight ahead with the left foot, taking a 24-inch step (measured from heel to heel), and places the heel on the ground first. When stepping off and while marching, the airman will use coordinated arm swing; that is, right arm forward with the left leg and left arm forward with the right leg. The hands will be cupped with the thumbs pointed down, and the arms will hang straight, but not stiff, and will swing naturally. The swing of the arms will measure 6 inches to the front (measured from the rear of the hand to the front of the thigh) and 3 inches to the rear (measured from the front of the hand to the back of the thigh). If applicable, proper dress, cover, interval, and distance will be maintained; and cadence will be adhered to. Count cadence as follows: counts one and three are given as the heel of the left foot strikes the ground and counts two and four are given as the heel of the right foot strikes the ground.

Double Time: To march in double time from a halt or when marching in quick time, the command is Double Time, MARCH. When halted and on the command MARCH, the airman begins with the left foot, raises the forearms to a horizontal position along the waistline, cups the hands with the knuckles out, and begins an easy run of 180 steps per minute with 30-inch steps, measured from heel to heel. Coordinated motion of the arms are maintained throughout. When marching in quick time and on the command MARCH (given as either foot strikes the ground), the airman takes one more step in quick time and then steps off in double time. To resume quick time from double time, the command is Quick Time, MARCH, with four steps between commands. On the command MARCH (given as either foot strikes the ground), the airman advances two more steps in double time, resumes quick time, lowers the arms to the sides, and resumes coordinated arm swing. To halt from double time, the command Flight, HALT is given as either foot strikes the ground, with four steps between commands. The airman will take two more steps in double time and halt in two counts at quick time, lowering the arms to the sides. The only commands that can be given while in double time are Incline To The Right (Left); Quick Time, MARCH; and Flight, HALT.

Right (Left) Step: The command is Right (Left) Step, MARCH, given only from a halt and for moving short distances. On the command MARCH, the airman raises the right (left) leg from the hip just high enough to clear the ground. The leg will be kept straight, but not stiff, throughout the movement. The individual places the right (left) foot 12 inches, as measured from the inside of the heels, to the right (left) of the left (right) foot. Transfer the weight of the body to the right (left) foot, then bring the left (right) foot (without scraping the ground) smartly to a position alongside the right (left) foot as in the position of attention. This movement is continued in quick time; the upper portion of the body remains at attention and arms remain at the sides throughout.

Right (Left) Flank: The command is Right (Left) Flank, MARCH, given as the heel of the right (left) foot strikes the ground. On the command MARCH, the airman takes one more 24-inch step, pivots 90 degrees to the right (left) on the ball of the left (right) foot, keeping the upper portion of the body at the position of attention. Then step off with the right (left) foot in the new direction of march with a full 24-inch step and coordinated arm swing Arm swing is suspended to the sides as the weight of the body comes forward on the pivot foot. The pivot and step off are executed in one count. This movement is used for a quick movement to the right or left for short distances only. Throughout the movement, maintain proper dress, cover, interval, and distance. Right (Left) Flank (while marching): The command is Right (Left) Flank, MARCH. On the command MARCH, the airman executes a 90-degree pivot on the ball of the `right (left) foot and, at the same time, steps off with the left (right) foot in the new direction with coordinated arm swing. The pivot and step are executed in one count, and proper dress, cover, interval, and distance are maintained.

Flank

 

 

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